• Captive Care of the Phantasmal Dart Frog (Epipedobates tricolor & Epipedobates anthonyi)

    by Michael Jones



    Introduction
    The Phantasmal Dart Frog covers two species of dart frogs that originate from the El Oro, Azuay, and Loja provinces of southwestern Ecuador and the Piura, and Tumbes departments of northwestern Peru.

    Epipedobates anthonyi
    is generally located in south-western Ecuador (Salvia, El Oro Province), while E. tricolor is found in central Ecuador, on the western slopes of the Andes (El Porvenir, Bolívar Province).

    Although initially described as two different species, they have also previously been considered together as one species (E. tricolor) but their captive care is essentially the same.


    General Description
    They are relatively small dart frogs, reaching a snout-vent length of up to 25 mm, however what they lack in size they tend to make up for in boldness. As well as bold they are extremely hardy frogs making them an ideal starter species for those wanting to begin keeping dart frogs.

    The most commonly available morphs consist of a base body colour of red with yellow or cream coloured stripes running longitudinally down the body. Different morphs do exist with tan, green or even blue stripes.


    Sexing
    Females can be larger with a more rounded body shape although this is not always the case and so the most reliable method of sexing is observing male frogs calling. Male frogs can begin calling as young as 3 months after metamorphosis, but 6 months is more common.


    Housing
    These frogs thrive when housed in groups and although small, are extremely active, and will exhibit territorial behaviour, so they do best in heavily planted, large vivaria with leaf litter as well as tropical seed pods and branches for climbing. A 20 gallon tank (about 80 Liters) would adequately house a group of 6 to 8 adult frogs. They are a predominantly terrestrial species but will make use of all parts of a vivarium. Males will compete for the highest calling spots and some height is advantageous.


    The 45 cm x 45 cm x 60 cm (18 x 18 x 24 inch) vivarium in which I keep
    a 3.3 group (3.3 means 3 males and 3 females).
    Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    A source of fresh, de-chlorinated water should be available at all times, either in the form of a water dish or a pool integrated into the landscaping of the vivarium.

    For breeding purposes these frogs like to lay their eggs on sturdy, horizontal leaves (such as Pothos [Epipremnum], Alocasia, and Syngonium) as well as bromeliad leaves and axils. Therefore, these plants make useful additions to the vivarium, as well as species of climbers and other plants.

    They are best maintained at humidity in excess of 90% and temperatures slightly cooler than most other dart frogs, generally within the range 18 - 25°C (64 – 78°F) with a slight drop at night. This is best achieved using a thermostat-controlled heat mat fixed to the bottom or side of the vivarium.

    Lighting should be provided in the form of fluorescent tubes, either with or without UV depending on your preference, although live plants would benefit from at least some form of natural daylight bulb/tube.

    Springtails and woodlice (isopods) when added to the substrate prior to introducing the frogs not only act as excellent vivarium custodians but also provide a good food source to supplement your feeding regime.


    Feeding
    These frogs are voracious feeders, taking prey items that would be too big for other similarly sized dart frogs. Common food items are small and large fruit flies, crickets (hatchling to 1st/2nd instar), bean weevils, grain weevils, aphids, springtails, whiteworms, mites and dwarf tropical woodlice. Food items should be dusted with a suitable calcium and vitamin supplement regularly.


    Breeding
    Once sexually mature, these frogs generally do not need much encouragement to begin spawning however breeding can be induced by increasing feeding and misting of the tank. Males have a very loud, melodic call and will compete for the highest, most prominent calling spots.

    A video of a male E. anthonyi calling for females:



    As previously stated they prefer sturdy, horizontal leaves for spawning but will just as happily spawn in horizontal film canisters. It is reported that they also spawn in leaf litter although I have never observed this myself.


    Male E. anthonyi guarding a clutch of eggs laid on a Syngonium
    leaf. Photo ©2011 Michael Jones



    Male E. anthonyi guarding a clutch of eggs laid in a film-canister.
    Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    Egg clutches can be left in situ or withdrawn for raising outside the vivarium (which I shall discuss in the next section). Once fertilised, clutches are guarded by the male for up to two weeks and will make regular trips to water sources to ensure the clutch remains moist.

    Once the tadpoles begin to break free from their jelly the male frog encourages them onto his back and will deposit them in a suitable water source (normally a pool or water dish). The frogs will exhibit no further parental care from this point.


    Male E. anthonyi transporting a clutch of around 20 tadpoles.
    Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    Tadpole Care
    If you decide to remove egg clutches to raise outside the vivarium they are best placed in a suitable clean (or sterile if possible) container such as a petri dish. They need to be kept moist but not submerged until the tadpoles break free of their jelly and are free moving.


    Eggs newly transferred to a petri dish and a few days later as they develop.
    Photos ©2011 Michael Jones / FrogForum.net


    A great advantage of these species is that their tadpoles are not cannibalistic like many dart frog tadpoles and can therefore be kept communally.


    Tadpole raising tank. Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    Tadpoles are raised in communal tanks in tadpole tea. Tadpole tea is made by boiling de-chlorinated, preferably soft water with Indian almond leaves, oak leaves, or black alder cones. The tannins released by this process softens the water further as well as inhibiting bacterial and fungal growth.

    Almond and oak leaves are added whole to the tea and act as hiding places and the tadpoles will graze on the leaves and any algae or bacteria that grows on them. (Editor's note: if you do not have access to these leaves, you should be able to purchase "Blackwater extract" at your local aquarium store. This will substitute quite well for home made tadpole tea.)

    Plants such as elodea, hornwort and pothos can be added to the tank to oxygenate the water as well as providing vegetable matter for these truly omnivorous tadpoles.

    Although not strictly necessary, I have found the addition of a small air-stone helps improve water quality and can reduce the need for as regular water changes.

    Even with an air-stone in situ, regular water changes are still necessary to maintain water quality, and may possibly reduce the incidence of spindly-leg syndrome (SLS) although this observation may be anecdotal.

    As well as grazing on algae and vegetation in their tank, tadpoles will take a variety of foods. I maintain my tadpoles on tropical fish flake, Tadpole Bites, freeze-dried bloodworm and sinking spirulina pellets with added carotenoid. Feeding high carotenoid containing foods to tadpoles should improve the colour intensity of the final froglets.

    Once the tadpoles begin to develop legs slope the tank to allow an area for them to climb out and add floating pieces of cork-bark. Alternatively remove any tadpoles once they have developed their front legs and place in very shallow water with areas of orchid bark which they can climb out onto. Generally by this stage tadpoles will not feed until they have absorbed their tails.


    Tadpoles at various stages of development.
    Photos ©2011 Michael Jones / FrogForum.net


    Froglet Care
    Froglets should be kept in vivaria with plenty of plants and leaf litter to provide adequate hiding spots. It is a good idea to set up such a tank in advance as this allows time for plants to grow and establish, as well as giving you time to establish a population of springtails on which the newly emerged froglets will feed.


    Froglet rearing tank. Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    Froglets are relatively dull when they emerge, generally brown in colour and often lacking their central stripe. This will develop over time although full adult colouration can take up to 18 months to form. Feeding springtails raised on high carotenoid foodstuffs such as fish flake, carrot and beetroot can help colour development even at this stage.
    Whilst their diet will consist of primarily springtails initially, froglets can be moved on to fruit flies and gut-loaded hatchling crickets relatively quickly. These should be dusted at every feed at this stage.


    A 2 month old froglet already developing its adult colouration.
    Photo ©2011 Michael Jones


    Conclusion
    I hope you have found this guide useful and it encourages you to keep this lovely dart frog species. They make an excellent beginner's dart frog, and a rewarding choice for the experienced keeper.

    First published on Tuesday July 5th 2011. Last updated Tuesday July 5th 2011 - First published.

    Article is ©2011 Michael Jones. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced or published in part or in whole without written permission from Michael Jones.

    Comments, suggestions and criticism welcomed!

    This article was originally published in forum thread: Captive Care of the Phantasmal Dart Frog (Epipedobates tricolor & Epipedobates anthonyi) started by berksmike View original post
    Comments 6 Comments
    1. DartEd's Avatar
      DartEd -
      Very informative and thorough.
    1. CJ PELCHER's Avatar
      CJ PELCHER -
      THis is great!!! I am purchasing these frogs on MAY 1st 2013 and i will use this guide and no others... THANK YOU!!
    1. pissedbudgie's Avatar
      pissedbudgie -
      Fantastic guide, in fact it was the sheer quality of the information contained within this one care sheet that helped me decide to keep this species (Epipedobates Anthonyi).

      One thing though, it says "Males have a very loud, melodic call" it really should say "Males have a VERY loud, melodic call"

      Thank you so much for this.
    1. j12345's Avatar
      j12345 -
      my Epipedobates tricolor wont breed i've had them a good few months now, they are calling loudly every day i believe there is 2:1 ratio (males:females). there are a few heigh spots and a bromeliad with a coconut hide at the back is there any thing i am missing

    1. Cliygh and Mia 2's Avatar
      Cliygh and Mia 2 -
      Quote Originally Posted by j12345 View Post
      my Epipedobates tricolor wont breed i've had them a good few months now, they are calling loudly every day i believe there is 2:1 ratio (males:females). there are a few heigh spots and a bromeliad with a coconut hide at the back is there any thing i am missing
      This may sound stupid, but is there any water for the eggs to be placed in?
    1. sabelleramsie's Avatar
      sabelleramsie -
      Readers of the articles can catch new collection of them with visit of this site that provides active links of downloading. Students get lots of benefits with hire of the best writing service that is a reasonable option because of their features.
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